Yoga is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India. There is a broad variety of Yoga schools, practices, and goals in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. Among the most well-known types of yoga are Hatha yoga and Rāja yoga.
The origins of yoga have been speculated to date back to pre-Vedic Indian traditions, it is mentioned in the Rigveda, but most likely developed around the sixth and fifth centuries BCE, in ancient India's ascetic and śramaṇa movements. The chronology of earliest texts describing yoga-practices is unclear, varyingly credited to Hindu Upanishads. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali date from the first half of the 1st millennium CE, but only gained prominence in the West in the 20th century. Hatha yoga texts emerged around the 11th century with origins in tantra.
Yoga gurus from India later introduced yoga to the west, following the success of Swami Vivekananda in the late 19th and early 20th century. In the 1980s, yoga became popular as a system of physical exercise across the Western world. Yoga in Indian traditions, however, is more than physical exercise; it has a meditative and spiritual core. One of the six major orthodox schools of Hinduism is also called Yoga, which has its own epistemology and metaphysics, and is closely related to Hindu Samkhya philosophy.
Many studies have tried to determine the effectiveness of yoga as a complementary intervention for cancer, schizophrenia, asthma, and heart disease. The results of these studies have been mixed and inconclusive, with cancer studies suggesting none to unclear effectiveness, and others suggesting yoga may reduce risk factors and aid in a patient's psychological healing process. On December 1st, 2016, Yoga was listed as UNESCO’s Intangible cultural heritage.
Tabata, also known as the Tabata Protocol, is new type of high intensity interval training designed to get your heart rate up in that very hard anaerobic zone for short periods of time. The reason? This type of workout helps you burn more calories both during and after your workouts.
Tabata training follows a specific format:
20 seconds of a very high intensity exercise (e.g., sprints)
10 seconds of rest
Repeat 8 times for a total of 4 minutes
The idea for Tabata training originated from the world of athletes, as many of our workout ideas do. Dr. Izumi Tabata, a professor at the Faculty of Sport and Health Science at Ritsumeikan University in Japan, along with the head coach of the Japanese speed skating team, wanted to find out if very short bursts of high intensity exercise, followed by even shorter rests, would improve the skaters' performance.
To test the effectiveness of this training regime, Dr. Tabata took study subjects through the high intensity (170% of VO2 max) 4-minute Tabata workout using a stationary bike.
He compared the results with another group of athletes who followed a different workout, working at an even higher intensity (200% of VO2 max) for 4-5 bouts of 30 seconds, followed by 2 minutes of rest.
The results, published in Medicine & Science in Sports and Exercise, were that the Tabata athletes improved their VO2 max, which is the body's ability to use oxygen more effectively.
That translated into improved performance on the ice.
How Tabata Training Can Target Your Energy Systems
The other interesting finding was that the Tabata Protocol improved two of our main energy systems. It targets the anaerobic energy system, which is the system responsible for short, high intensity exercise such as sprints and it also targets the aerobic energy system, which is the system used for endurance exercise such as long, slow running.
Traditional interval training and moderate intensity exercise both target the aerobic system, but don't always improve the anaerobic system.
However, as Dr. Tabata found in his research study, doing high intensity interval training with a rest period shorter than the work period can target both systems, giving both athletes and the average exerciser more bang for their buck.
The bottom line? Tabata workouts offer more performance benefits in less time, but that doesn't mean these workouts are for everyone.
Because the intensity intervals require an all-out effort (Level 9-10 on this perceived exertion scale), and because the short recovery periods add up to a major oxygen debt, this 4-minute workout may feel like the longest 4 minutes of your life.
Tabata training is very advanced and best suited to experienced exercisers. Beginners should start with lighter interval training and gradually work their way up to this level of intensity.
Tips for Tabata Training:
While the original study involved a stationary bike, you can do the Tabata Protocol with almost any activity or cardio machine. For example, in this Tabata Cardio Workout, there are a variety of bodyweight exercises that, if done at full intensity, will get your heart rate soaring.
Make sure you are thoroughly warmed up (for at least 10 minutes) before trying this type of workout.
If you're new to this type of training, start with 5-6 cycles of each exercise and increase the rest to 20-30 seconds. As you get a feel for the workout and build stamina, gradually shorten the rest periods and increase the number of cycles to add more intensity.
If you do more than one Tabata set (as many workouts do), rest about 60 or more seconds between Tabata sets.
Monitor your intensity frequently. The intensity accumulates as you go through each cycle, peaking as you reach the end of the workout when muscles are fatigued and form gets sloppy, making you more vulnerable to injury.
Do this workout no more than 1-2 times a week, with rest in between to avoid overtraining and injury.
You can find some great Tabata timing apps to help you keep track of your Tabatas, such as Tabata Pro, available for both iPhone and Android.
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